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Indoor/outdoor relationships and mass closure of quasi-ultrafine, accumulation and coarse particles in Barcelona schools
Viana Rodríguez, María del Mar (Institut de Diagnosi Ambiental i Estudis de l'Aigua)
Rivas Lara, Ioar (Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona. Institut de Ciència i Tecnologia Ambientals)
Querol Carceller, Xavier (Institut de Diagnosi Ambiental i Estudis de l'Aigua)
Alastuey, Andrés (Institut de Diagnosi Ambiental i Estudis de l'Aigua)
Sunyer, J. (Centre de Recerca en Epidemiologia Ambiental)
Álvarez Pedrerol, M. (Centre de Recerca en Epidemiologia Ambiental)
Bouso Castillo, Laura (Centre de Recerca en Epidemiologia Ambiental)
Sioutas, C. (University of Southern California)

Data: 2014
Resum: The mass concentration, chemical composition and sources of quasi-ultrafine (quasi-UFP, PM0. 25), accumulation (PM0. 25−2. 5) and coarse mode (PM2. 5−10) particles were determined in indoor and outdoor air at 39 schools in Barcelona (Spain). Quasi-UFP mass concentrations measured (25. 6 μgm−3 outdoors, 23. 4 μgm−3 indoors) are significantly higher than those reported in other studies, and characterised by higher carbonaceous and mineral matter contents and a lower proportion of secondary inorganic ions. Results suggest that quasi-UFPs in Barcelona are affected by local sources in the schools, mainly human activity (e. g. organic material from textiles, etc. , contributing 23–46% to total quasi-UFP mass) and playgrounds (in the form of mineral matter, contributing about 9% to the quasi-UFP mass). The particle size distribution patterns of toxicologically relevant metals and major aerosol components was characterised, displaying two modes for most elements and components, and one mode for inorganic salts (ammonium nitrate and sulfate)and elemental carbon (EC). Regarding metals, Ni and Cr were partitioned mainly in quasi-UFPs and could thus be of interest for epidemiological studies, given their high redox properties. Exposure of children to quasi-UFP mass and chemical species was assessed by comparing the concentrations measured at urban background and traffic areas schools. Finally, three main indoor sources across all size fractions were identified by assessing indoor / outdoor ratios (I / O) of PM species used as their tracers: human activity (organic material), cleaning products, paints and plastics (Cl− source), and a metallic mixed source (comprising combinations of Cu, Zn, Co, Cd, Pb, As, V and Cr). Our results support the need to enforce targeted legislation to determine a minimum “safe” distance between major roads and newly built schools to reduce exposure to traffic-derived metals in quasi-UFPs.
Nota: Número d'acord de subvenció EC/FP7/268479
Nota: Número d'acord de subvenció MAGRAMA/CGL2011-26574
Nota: Número d'acord de subvenció MICINN/CLG2010-19464-CLI
Nota: Número d'acord de subvenció MICINN/CSD-2007-00067
Nota: Número d'acord de subvenció MAGRAMA/UCA2009020083
Drets: Aquest document està subjecte a una llicència d'ús Creative Commons. Es permet la reproducció total o parcial, la distribució, la comunicació pública de l'obra i la creació d'obres derivades, fins i tot amb finalitats comercials, sempre i quan es reconegui l'autoria de l'obra original. Creative Commons
Llengua: Anglès
Document: article ; recerca ; publishedVersion
Matèria: Ultrafine particles ; Metals ; Children exposure ; Playground sand ; Schools ; Urban traffic emissions
Publicat a: Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, Vol. 14, no. 9 (May 2014) , p. 4459-4472, ISSN 1680-7316

DOI: 10.5194/acp-14-4459-2014

14 p, 891.1 KB

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