Per citar aquest document: http://ddd.uab.cat/record/37842
Estratègies per a la millora de la resistència de l'arròs (Oryza sativa L.) front al lepidòpter Chilo suppressalis i front a fongs fitopatògens / Laura Vila Ujaldón
Vila Ujaldón, Laura
San Segundo, Blanca, dir. (Institut de Biologia Molecular de Barcelona)

Publicació: Bellaterra : Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, 2004
Resum: This work is included in a largest project focused on the improvement of transgenic rice plants resistance against pests and phytopathogens. Our goal is the obtention of an improvement of the rice resistance against the lepidopterean Chilo suppressalis, the most important rice pest. The chosen strategy was the expression of the mpi gene (Maize Proteinase Inhibitor, coding for a proteinase inhibitor) on rice, by both biolistic and Agrobacterium transformation methods. The proteinase inhibitors are part of the natural defence system of plants against insect predation. Expression of this gene, and accumulation of the MPI protein, is stable through successive generations of rice transgenic lines. We have demonstrated that constitutive expression of the mpi gene confers resistance towards Chilo suppressalis larvae infestation in transgenic rice. Bioassays performed with transgenic rice plants expressing the mpi gene constitutively that were infested with Chilo larvae, showed that ingestion of the MPI lead to a significant reduction of the larvae weight with respect to the control larvae group (as far as 60 %). It is also important to point out that larvae fed on transgenic MPI plants showed a significant delay in their development, preventing the achievement of the L4 larval stage in most of them. The mpi promoter is functional in rice and confers wound-inducibility of gus reporter gene. The 2K fragment of mpi promoter confers a more rapid and intense induction than shortest C1 fragment. Moreover, 2K fragment of mpi promoter doesn't confer expression of gus reporter gene in the rice seed endosperm. On the other hand, the maize mpi gene is correctly expressed in rice plants under control of his own regulatory regions. The observed expression levels allow obtaining similar effects on Chilo larvae than those obtained with constitutive mpi expression. Besides, we fixed the optimal pH of digestive proteinase activities of Chilo suppressalis and Cacyreus marshalli (Geranium pest) as alkaline (pH 10. 5 and 10 respectively). In Chilo digestive system participate serine proteinases activities of trypsin and chimotryspsin type, and also carboxy and aspartic proteinases. We also observed an adaptation effect on Chilo digestive system of larvae feed on transgenic rice plants, with an increase of 40% of total proteolytic activities in comparison to the control larvae activities. Nevertheless, this increase is not effective to overcome the MPI inhibitor effect. The analysis of AFP (Antifungal Protein) allows to conclude that this protein shows an elevated antifungal activity against F. verticillioides and M. grisea at low nM concentrations. Besides, AFP shows activity against the oomycete Phytophthora infestans at low mM concentrations. The presence of AFP protein leads to important morphological abnormalities of these phytopathogens. We have not detect toxic effects of AFP protein towards rice protoplasts at high AFP concentrations. The topic application of AFP protein on rice plants confers protection to Magnaporthe grisea infection.
Nota: Bibliografia
Nota: Tesi doctoral - Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Facultat de Ciències, Departament de Bioquímica i Biologia Molecular, 2003
Nota: Consultable des del TDX
Nota: Títol obtingut de la portada digitalitzada
Drets: ADVERTIMENT. L'accés als continguts d'aquesta tesi doctoral i la seva utilització ha de respectar els drets de la persona autora. Pot ser utilitzada per a consulta o estudi personal, així com en activitats o materials d'investigació i docència en els termes establerts a l'art. 32 del Text Refós de la Llei de Propietat Intel·lectual (RDL 1/1996). Per altres utilitzacions es requereix l'autorització prèvia i expressa de la persona autora. En qualsevol cas, en la utilització dels seus continguts caldrà indicar de forma clara el nom i cognoms de la persona autora i el títol de la tesi doctoral. No s'autoritza la seva reproducció o altres formes d'explotació efectuades amb finalitats de lucre ni la seva comunicació pública des d'un lloc aliè al servei TDX. Tampoc s'autoritza la presentació del seu contingut en una finestra o marc aliè a TDX (framing). Aquesta reserva de drets afecta tant als continguts de la tesi com als seus resums i índexs.
Llengua: Català.
Document: Tesis i dissertacions electròniques ; doctoralThesis
Matèria: Arròs ; Enzims proteolítics inhibidors ; Fongs fitopatogènics ; Plantes ; Resistència a malalties i plagues
ISBN: 8468838977

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