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Assessing general cognitive and adaptive abilities in adults with Down syndrome : a systematic review
Hamburg, Sarah (The London Down Syndrome Consortium (LonDownS), London, UK)
Lowe, Bryony (Loughborough University. Department of Psychology)
Startin, Carla Marie (The London Down Syndrome Consortium (LonDownS), London, UK)
Padilla, Concepcion (Department of Psychiatry, Herchel Smith Building for Brain & Mind Sciences, Forvie Site, Robinson Way, Cambridge, CB2 0SZ UK)
Coppus, Antonia (Radboud University Medical Center. Department of Primary and Community Care)
Silverman, Wayne (University of California. Department of Pediatrics)
Fortea, Juan (Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red de Enfermedades Neurodegenerativas, CIBERNED)
Zaman, Shahid (Department of Psychiatry, Herchel Smith Building for Brain & Mind Sciences, Forvie Site, Robinson Way, Cambridge, CB2 0SZ UK)
Head, Elizabeth (University of Kentucky. Sanders-Brown Center on Aging)
Handen, Benjamin L. (University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine. Department of Psychiatry)
Lott, Ira (University of California. Departments of Pediatrics and Neurology)
Song, Weihong (The University of British Columbia. Townsend Family Laboratories, Department of Psychiatry)
Strydom, André (The London Down Syndrome Consortium (LonDownS), London, UK)

Date: 2019
Abstract: NOUAB.
Abstract: Measures of general cognitive and adaptive ability in adults with Down syndrome (DS) used by previous studies vary substantially. This review summarises the different ability measures used previously, focusing on tests of intelligence quotient (IQ) and adaptive behaviour (AB), and where possible examines floor effects and differences between DS subpopulations. We aimed to use information regarding existing measures to provide recommendations for individual researchers and the DS research community. Nineteen studies reporting IQ test data met inclusion for this review, with 17 different IQ tests used. Twelve of these IQ tests were used in only one study while five were used in two different studies. Eleven studies reporting AB test data met inclusion for this review, with seven different AB tests used. The only AB scales to be used by more than one study were the Vineland Adaptive Behaviour Scale (VABS; used by three studies) and the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scale 2nd Edition (VABS-II; used by two studies). A variety of additional factors were identified which make comparison of test scores between studies problematic, including different score types provided between studies (e. g. raw scores compared to age-equivalent scores) and different participant inclusion criteria (e. g. whether individuals with cognitive decline were excluded). Floor effects were common for IQ tests (particularly for standardised test scores). Data exists to suggest that floor effects may be minimised by the use of raw test scores rather than standardised test scores. Raw scores may, therefore, be particularly useful in longitudinal studies to track change in cognitive ability over time. Studies assessing general ability in adults with DS are likely to benefit from the use of both IQ and AB scales. The DS research community may benefit from the development of reporting standards for IQ and AB data, and from the sharing of raw study data enabling further in-depth investigation of issues highlighted by this review.
Rights: Aquest document està subjecte a una llicència d'ús Creative Commons. Es permet la reproducció total o parcial, la distribució, la comunicació pública de l'obra i la creació d'obres derivades, fins i tot amb finalitats comercials, sempre i quan es reconegui l'autoria de l'obra original. Creative Commons
Language: Anglès
Document: article ; recerca ; publishedVersion
Published in: Journal of Neurodevelopmental Disorders, Vol. 11 (august 2019) , ISSN 1866-1955

DOI: 10.1186/s11689-019-9279-8
PMID: 31470792

16 p, 930.6 KB

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Articles > Research articles
Articles > Published articles

 Record created 2020-07-06, last modified 2020-11-19

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