||Many problems arising in traffic planning can be modelled and solved using discrete optimization. We will focus on recent developments which were applied to large scale real world instances. Most railroad companies apply a hierarchically structured planning process. Starting with the definition of the underlying network used for transport one has to decide which infrastructural improvements are necessary. Usually, the rail system is periodically scheduled. A fundamental base of the schedule are the lines connecting several stations with a fixed frequency. Possible objectives for the construction of the line plan may be the minimization of the total cost or the maximization of the passenger's comfort satisfying certain regulations. After the lines of the system are fixed, the train schedule can be determined. A criterion for the quality of a schedule is the total transit time of the passengers including the waiting time which should be minimized satisfying some operational constraints. For each trip of the schedule a train consisting of a locomotive and some carriages is needed for service. The assignment of rolling stock to schedule trips has to satisfy operational requirements. A comprehensible objective is to minimize the total cost. After all strategic and tactical planning the schedule has to be realized. Several external influences, for example delayed trains, force the dispatcher to recompute parts of the schedule on-line. .