Web of Science: 48 cites, Scopus: 58 cites, Google Scholar: cites,
Esophageal cancer risk by type of alcohol drinking and smoking : a case-control study in Spain
Vioque, Jesús (Universidad Miguel Hernández. Departamento de Salud Pública)
Barber, Xavier (Universidad Miguel Hernández. Departamento de Estadística)
Bolumar, Francisco (Universidad de Alcalá. Facultad de Medicina)
Porta, Miquel, 1957- (Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona. Departament de Pediatria, d'Obstetrícia i Ginecologia i de Medicina Preventiva)
Santibáñez, Miguel (Universidad Miguel Hernández. Departamento de Salud Pública)
García de la Hera, Manuela (Universidad Miguel Hernández. Departamento de Salud Pública)
Moreno-Osset, Eduardo (Hospital Universitari Doctor Peset (València))
PANESOES Study Group

Data: 2008
Resum: Background: The effect of tobacco smoking and alcohol drinking on esophageal cancer (EC) has never been explored in Spain where black tobacco and wine consumptions are quite prevalent. We estimated the independent effect of different alcoholic beverages and type of tobacco smoking on the risk of EC and its main histological cell type (squamous cell carcinoma) in a hospital-based case-control study in a Mediterranean area of Spain. Methods: We only included incident cases with histologically confirmed EC (n = 202). Controls were frequency-matched to cases by age, sex and province (n = 455). Information on risk factors was elicited by trained interviewers using structured questionnaires. Multiple logistic regression was used to estimate adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CI). Results: Alcohol drinking and tobacco smoking were strong and independent risk factors for esophageal cancer. Alcohol was a potent risk factor with a clear dose-response relationship, particularly for esophageal squamous-cell cancer. Compared to never-drinkers, the risk for heaviest drinkers (≥ 75 g/day of pure ethanol) was 7. 65 (95%CI, 3. 16-18. 49); and compared with never-smokers, the risk for heaviest smokers (≥ 30 cigarettes/day) was 5. 07 (95%CI, 2. 06-12. 47). A low consumption of only wine and/or beer (1-24 g/d) did not increase the risk whereas a strong positive trend was observed for all types of alcoholic beverages that included any combination of hard liquors with beer and/or wine (p-trend<0. 00001). A significant increase in EC risk was only observed for black-tobacco smoking (2. 5-fold increase), not for blond tobacco. The effects for alcohol drinking were much stronger when the analysis was limited to the esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (n = 160), whereas a lack of effect for adenocarcinoma was evidenced. Smoking cessation showed a beneficial effect within ten years whereas drinking cessation did not. Conclusion: Our study shows that the risk of EC, and particularly the squamous cell type, is strongly associated with alcohol drinking. The consumption of any combination of hard liquors seems to be harmful whereas a low consumption of only wine may not. This may relates to the presence of certain antioxidant compounds found in wine but practically lacking in liquors. Tobacco smoking is also a clear risk factor, black more than blond.
Drets: Aquest document està subjecte a una llicència d'ús Creative Commons. Es permet la reproducció total o parcial, la distribució, la comunicació pública de l'obra i la creació d'obres derivades, fins i tot amb finalitats comercials, sempre i quan es reconegui l'autoria de l'obra original. Creative Commons
Llengua: Anglès
Document: Versió publicada ; recerca
Publicat a: BMC Cancer, Vol. 8, Núm. 221 (August 2008), p. 1-10, ISSN 1471-2407

DOI: 10.1186/1471-2407-8-221
PMID: 18673563

10 p, 288.5 KB

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