Web of Science: 60 cites, Scopus: 65 cites, Google Scholar: cites,
Ancient DNA Analysis of 8000 B.C. Near Eastern Farmers Supports an Early Neolithic Pioneer Maritime Colonization of Mainland Europe through Cyprus and the Aegean Islands
Fernández, Eva (Universidad Complutense de Madrid. Laboratorio de Genética Forense y Genética de Poblaciones)
Pérez-Pérez, Alejandro (Universitat de Barcelona. Departament de Biologia Animal)
Gamba, Cristina (Universidad Complutense de Madrid. Departamento de Toxicología y Legislación Sanitaria)
Prats, Eva (Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (Espanya). Centro de Investigación y Desarrollo)
Cuesta, Pedro (Universidad Complutense de Madrid. Servicios informáticos)
Molist, Miquel 1956- (Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona. Departament de Prehistòria)
Anfruns, Josep (Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona. Departament de Prehistòria)
Arroyo-Pardo, Eduardo (Universidad Complutense de Madrid. Departamento de Toxicología y Legislación Sanitaria)
Turbón, Daniel (Universitat de Barcelona. Departament de Biologia Animal)

Data: 2014
Resum: The genetic impact associated to the Neolithic spread in Europe has been widely debated over the last 20 years. Within this context, ancient DNA studies have provided a more reliable picture by directly analyzing the protagonist populations at different regions in Europe. However, the lack of available data from the original Near Eastern farmers has limited the achieved conclusions, preventing the formulation of continental models of Neolithic expansion. Here we address this issue by presenting mitochondrial DNA data of the original Near-Eastern Neolithic communities with the aim of providing the adequate background for the interpretation of Neolithic genetic data from European samples. Sixty-three skeletons from the Pre Pottery Neolithic B (PPNB) sites of Tell Halula, Tell Ramad and Dja'de El Mughara dating between 8,700-6,600 cal. B. C. were analyzed, and 15 validated mitochondrial DNA profiles were recovered. In order to estimate the demographic contribution of the first farmers to both Central European and Western Mediterranean Neolithic cultures, haplotype and haplogroup diversities in the PPNB sample were compared using phylogeographic and population genetic analyses to available ancient DNA data from human remains belonging to the Linearbandkeramik-Alföldi Vonaldiszes Kerámia and Cardial/Epicardial cultures. We also searched for possible signatures of the original Neolithic expansion over the modern Near Eastern and South European genetic pools, and tried to infer possible routes of expansion by comparing the obtained results to a database of 60 modern populations from both regions. Comparisons performed among the 3 ancient datasets allowed us to identify K and N-derived mitochondrial DNA haplogroups as potential markers of the Neolithic expansion, whose genetic signature would have reached both the Iberian coasts and the Central European plain. Moreover, the observed genetic affinities between the PPNB samples and the modern populations of Cyprus and Crete seem to suggest that the Neolithic was first introduced into Europe through pioneer seafaring colonization. Since the original human expansions out of Africa 200,000 years ago, different prehistoric and historic migration events have taken place in Europe. Considering that the movement of the people implies a consequent movement of their genes, it is possible to estimate the impact of these migrations through the genetic analysis of human populations. Agricultural and husbandry practices originated 10,000 years ago in a region of the Near East known as the Fertile Crescent. According to the archaeological record this phenomenon, known as "Neolithic", rapidly expanded from these territories into Europe. However, whether this diffusion was accompanied or not by human migrations is greatly debated. In the present work, mitochondrial DNA -a type of maternally inherited DNA located in the cell cytoplasm- from the first Near Eastern Neolithic populations was recovered and compared to available data from other Neolithic populations in Europe and also to modern populations from South Eastern Europe and the Near East. The obtained results show that substantial human migrations were involved in the Neolithic spread and suggest that the first Neolithic farmers entered Europe following a maritime route through Cyprus and the Aegean Islands.
Ajuts: Ministerio de Ciencia e Innovación BMC2002-2741
Ministerio de Ciencia e Innovación CGL2006-07828
Ministerio de Ciencia e Innovación CGL2009-07959
Ministerio de Ciencia e Innovación HUM2010-18612
European Commission INCO-MED-ICA3-CT-2002-10022
Nota: Altres ajuts: The work presented here was funded with the following research projects: CCG08-UCM/BIO-3938 (Comunidad Autónoma de Madrid) ; I&DPTDC/HAH/64548/2006 (Fundacâo para a Ciência e a Tecnologia, Portugal). This work was supported by a Post-Doctoral fellowship from Fundacâopara a Ciênciae a Tecnologia (Portugal) (Ref. SFRH/BPD/69426/2010) and a research contract Juan de la Cierva from the Spanish Government and the European Social Fund (Ref. JCI-2007-56-261) to EF and with a Pre-Doctoral FPU grant (Ref. AP2006-01586) from the Spanish Government to CG. Liverpool John Moores University, Universitat the Barcelona, Universidad Complutense de Madrid and Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona have jointly funded the open access publication costs of this article. The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.
Drets: This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are properly credited. Creative Commons
Llengua: Anglès
Document: Article ; recerca ; Versió publicada
Publicat a: PLoS Genetics, Vol. 10 (june 2014) , ISSN 1553-7404

DOI: 10.1371/journal.pgen.1004401
PMID: 24901650

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