ERC Synergy grant - 2013 - 610028: Quantify the responses of ecosystems and society in a world increasingly rich in N and C but limited in Phosphorus

El fòsfor (P) és un element confinat i finit a la terra, i la perspectiva que es limiti l’accés als seus recursos explotables ja ha desencadenat conflictes geopolítics. A diferència del que passa amb el P, en la majoria d’ecosistemes del planeta s’està produint un ràpid augment de la disponibilitat de carboni (C) i de nitrogen (N). El canvi imminent en l'estequiometria dels elements disponibles que en resulta no té cap equivalent en la història de la Terra i tindrà conseqüències profundes i encara desconegudes per a la vida, el sistema terrestre i la societat humana. Les desviacions que s’estan produint en els balanços de C:N:P als ecosistemes fer força afectaran l'estructura, la funció i la diversitat del sistema terrestre. La crisi en el mercat del P podria pressionar el sistema alimentari mundial i provocar un efecte ambiental en cadena, que abastaria des de l'expansió de terres agrícoles fins a canvis induïts per l’encariment del P en la gestió de la terra, la qual cosa agreujaria encara més el desequilibri estequiomètric en els recursos. No obstant això, els impactes d'aquesta pertorbació humana sense precedents en l'estequiometria elemental són encara un misteri per a la ciència. El projecte IMBALANCE-P proporcionarà una millora en la comprensió i previsió quantitativa d’aquests impactes que permetran desenvolupar una sèrie de polítiques encaminades a disminuir els riscos i a mitigar les conseqüències dels desequilibris estequiomètrics. S’empraran alguns dels models d'avaluació integrada i del sistema terrestre més importants d'Europa, calibrats utilitzant dades de limitació de nutrients en l'ecosistema obtinguts en experiments de camp. El projecte establirà un procés internacional de base científica en la diplomàcia del P.

Darreres entrades:
2017-06-22
16:20
8 p, 1.1 MB Global Phosphorus Fertilizer Market and National Policies: A Case Study Revisiting the 2008 Price Peak / Khabarov, Nikolay (International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (Àustria)) ; Obersteiner, Michael (International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (Àustria))
The commodity market super-cycle and food price crisis have been associated with rampant food insecurity and the Arab spring. A multitude of factors were identified as culprits for excessive volatility on the commodity markets. [...]
- 10.3389/fnut.2017.00022
Frontiers in nutrition, 2017  
2017-06-22
16:10
45 p, 1.5 MB Global and regional phosphorus budgets in agricultural systems and their implications for phosphorus-use efficiency / Lun, Fein (China Agricultural University. College of Resources and Environment Sciences) ; Liu, Jungo (South University of Science and Technology of China. School of Environmental Science and Engineering) ; Ciais, Philippe (Centre d'Etudes Orme des Merisiers) ; Nesme, Thomas (Université de Bordeaux. Bordeaux Sciences Agro) ; Sardans, Jordi (Centre de Recerca Ecològica i Aplicacions Forestals) ; Peñuelas, Josep (Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona. Departament de Biologia Animal, de Biologia Vegetal i d'Ecologia)
The application of phosphorus (P) fertilizer to agricultural soils increased by 3. 2 % annually from 2002 to 2010. We quantified in detail the P inputs and outputs of cropland and pasture, and the P fluxes through human and livestock consumers of agricultural products, at global, regional, and national scales from 2002 to 2010. [...]
- 0.5194/essd-2017-41
Earth System Science Data Discussions, 2017  
2017-06-22
15:54
19 p, 4.3 MB Experimental and observational studies find contrasting responses of soil nutrients to climate change / ZY Yuan ; F Jiao ; XR Shi ; Sardans i Galobart, Jordi (Centre de Recerca Ecològica i Aplicacions Forestals) ; Peñuelas, Josep, dir. (Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona. Departament de Biologia Animal, de Biologia Vegetal i d'Ecologia)
Manipulative experiments and observations along environmental gradients, the two most common approaches to evaluate the impacts of climate change on nutrient cycling, are generally assumed to produce similar results, but this assumption has rarely been tested. [...]
- 10.7554/eLife.23255
eLIFE, 2017  
2017-05-16
15:53
21 p, 2.0 MB Long-term fertilization determines different metabolomic profiles and responses in saplings of three rainforest tree species with different adult canopy position / Gargallo-Garriga, Albert (Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona. Servei de Ressonància Magnètica Nuclear) ; Wright, S. Joseph (Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute (Panamà)) ; Sardans i Galobart, Jordi (Centre de Recerca Ecològica i Aplicacions Forestals) ; Pérez-Trujillo, Miriam (Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona. Servei de Ressonància Magnètica Nuclear)
The changes in metabolome provided strong evidence that different nutrients limit different species in different ways. With increasing P availability, the two canopy species shifted their metabolome towards larger investment in protection mechanisms, whereas with increasing N availability, the sub-canopy species increased its primary metabolism. [...]
2017 - 10.1371/journal.pone.0177030
Plos One, 2017  
2017-04-18
17:40
12 p, 3.3 MB Pathways for balancing CO2 emissions and sinks / Walsh, Brian (International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (Àustria)) ; Peñuelas, Josep (Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona. Departament de Biologia Animal, de Biologia Vegetal i d'Ecologia) ; Ciais, Philippe (Laboratoire des Sciences du Climat et de L'Environnement (França)) ; Janssens, Ivan A. (University of Antwerp (Bèligica))
In December 2015 in Paris, leaders committed to achieve global, net decarbonization of human activities before 2100. This achievement would halt and even reverse anthropogenic climate change through the net removal of carbon from the atmosphere. [...]
2017 - 10.1038/ncomms14856
Nature Communications, 2017  
2017-04-07
19:22
11 p, 846.5 KB Nutrient-cycling mechanisms other than the direct absorption from soil may control forest structure and dynamics in poor Amazonian soils / Grau Fernández, Oriol (Centre de Recerca Ecològica i Aplicacions Forestals) ; Peñuelas, Josep (Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona. Departament de Biologia Animal, de Biologia Vegetal i d'Ecologia) ; Ferry, Bruno (AgroParisTech (França))
Tropical forests store large amounts of biomass despite they generally grow in nutrient-poor soils, suggesting that the role of soil characteristics in the structure and dynamics of tropical forests is complex. [...]
2017 - 10.1038/srep45017
Scientific Reports, 2017  
2017-04-07
19:14
Human population growth offsets climate-driven increase in woody vegetation in sub-Saharan Africa / Brandt, Martin (University of Copenhagen. Department of Geosciences and Natural Resource Management) ; Rasmussen, Kjeld (University of Copenhagen. Department of Geosciences and Natural Resource Management) ; Peñuelas, Josep (Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona. Departament de Biologia Animal, de Biologia Vegetal i d'Ecologia) ; Verger, Aleixandre (Centre de Recerca Ecològica i Aplicacions Forestals)
The rapidly growing human population in sub-Saharan Africa generates increasing demand for agricultural land and forest products which presumably leads to deforestation. Conversely, a greening of African drylands has been reported, but this has been difficult to associate with changes in woody vegetation. [...]
2017 - 10.1038/s41559-017-0081
Nature Ecology and Evolution, 2017
6 documents
2017-04-07
19:07
7 p, 483.9 KB Shrubland primary production and soil respiration diverge along European climate gradient / Reinsch, Sabine (Centre for Ecology & Hydrology, Environment Centre Wales (Regne Unit)) ; Peñuelas, Josep (Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona. Departament de Biologia Animal, de Biologia Vegetal i d'Ecologia) ; Koller, Eva (Bangor University (Regne Unit). School of Environment, Natural Resources and Geography) ; Sowerby, Alwyn (Centre for Ecology & Hydrology, Environment Centre Wales (Regne Unit)) ; Estiarte, Marc (Centre de Recerca Ecològica i Aplicacions Forestals)
Above- and belowground carbon (C) stores of terrestrial ecosystems are vulnerable to environmental change. Ecosystem C balances in response to environmental changes have been quantified at individual sites, but the magnitudes and directions of these responses along environmental gradients remain uncertain. [...]
2017 - 10.1038/srep43952
Scientific Reports, 2017  
2017-04-07
18:54
Ethnobotany, phylogeny, and "omics" for human health and food security / Garnatje, Teresa (Institut Botànic de Barcelona) ; Vallès, Joan (Universitat de Barcelona. Laboratori de Botànica) ; Peñuelas, Josep (Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona. Departament de Biologia Animal, de Biologia Vegetal i d'Ecologia)
Here, we propose a new term,‘ethnobotanical convergence’, to refer to the similar uses for plants included in the same node of a phylogeny. This phylogenetic approach, together with the ‘omics[20TD $d IF]’ revolution, shows how combining modern technologies with traditional ethnobotanical knowledge could be used to identify potential new applications of plants.
2017 - 10.1016/j.tplants.2017.01.001
Trends i Plant Science, Vol. 22, Núm. 3 (Març 2017) , p. 187–191  
2017-04-07
18:50
Springtime ecosystem-scale monoterpene fluxes from Mediterranean pine forests across a precipitation gradient / Seco, Roger (University of California. Department of Earth System Science) ; Karl, Thomas (University of Innsbruck (Àustria). Institute of Atmospheric and Cryospheric Sciences) ; Turnipseed, Andrew (2B Technologies (Estats Units d'Amèrica)) ; Llusia, Joan (Centre de Recerca Ecològica i Aplicacions Forestals) ; Peñuelas, Josep (Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona. Departament de Biologia Animal, de Biologia Vegetal i d'Ecologia)
We quantified springtime ecosystem-scale monoterpene fluxes from two similar Aleppo pine (Pinus halepensis Mill. ) forests, located in Israel, that differed in the amount of received precipitation: Yatir in the arid south and Birya in the northern part of Israel (291 and 755 mm annual average rainfall, respectively). [...]
2017 - 10.1016/j.agrformet.2017.02.007
Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, Vol. 237-238 (Maig 2017) , p. 150-159